ORGANIC BRED EINKORN VARIETIES
Einkorn wheat could be found in Asia Minor about 10.000 years ago and even in Hungary it was finally excluded from cultivation only in the second half of the 19th century. For a long time this ancient cereal was one of the basic food resources for humankind. It holds several advantages over today’s wheat as it is more undemanding, less sensitive to soil and climate conditions, resistant to most of the known fungal diseases and has excellent weed suppression ability. Einkorn wheat is particularly rich in microelements and essential amino-acids and has low carbohydrate content. In the framework of the project in the Centre of Agricultural Research of Hungarian Academy of Sciences the first bred einkorn wheat variety, directed by dr. Kovács Géza† was state registered in 2011 as Mv Menket. This is the first intensive semi-dwarf einkorn wheat variety that due to its shorter stems is more in line with the modern cultivation preferences. In 2013 as a continuation of breeding work we notified a new einkorn wheat strain, its breeder’s reference is MvA6-13. This new notified strain belongs to the traditional einkorn wheat types. It has lower protein content compared to the semi-dwarf variety that is important in terms of brewing.
Mv Alkor is the first diploid einkorn wheat variety produced in Hungary from an organic breeding programme. Under organic cultivation conditions it is capable of a yield of 2.5–3.5 t/ha. The plants are 120–130 cm in height and the stems are thin, but strong and flexible. Its excellent tillering and weed suppression ability make it ideal for use in organic farming and under low input growing conditions. It has excellent winter-hardiness and good tolerance of drought. It has little tolerance of high soil nutrient levels. The soft grains have high wet gluten and crude protein content, but the gluten is soft. The flour is rich in carotene, being yellow in colour. Due to its high biological value, good digestibility and high content of bioactive components it can be used to produce functional foodstuffs. It is recommended primarily for organic farming and for the production of bioproducts.
The Mv Menket is the first intensive semi-dwarf einkorn wheat variety. The plant is only 80-90 cm in height at maturing, while its production is 20 % higher than production of Mv Alkor, partly because it produces two rounded kernels on its rachis nodes. About 20 % of the kernels are free from chaff, naked when coming out of the combine harvester. It tolerates more intensive cultivation conditions well, but it is especially sensitive to herbicides however these are not necessary due to its excellent tillering and weed suppression ability. Due to its shorter stems it can be sown with seed rate of 4,5-5 million seeds/ha without the risk of lodging after elongation. It has excellent winter-hardiness, standing ability and resistance to fungal diseases. It is a late maturing variety and its soft grains have excessively high crude protein and fibre content. The flour is rich in carotene, being yellow in colour. It can be used also for making bakery products. Due to its high biological value, good digestibility, high content of bioactive components and ideal tocotrienol/tocol ratio (T3/T, vitamin E) it can be used to produce functional foodstuffs as well. It is recommended primarily for organic farming and for making organic products.
MvA6-13 (candidate variety)
Mv A6-13 is a traditional type organic bred einkorn wheat variety. It tillers well, the recommended seed-rate is 3,5 million seeds/ha. Higher density and taller crop growing on N-rich soils is susceptible to lodging when overripe, it is recommended primarily for organic farming. It is 125-135 cm in height and the stems are thin but strong and flexible. The ears are light red in colour. Although it is a facultative type it tolerates hard winter conditions well. It has a good tolerance of drought and excellent weed suppression ability and it is resistant to the main fungal diseases. It is a later maturing variety compared to the other einkorn wheat varieties already being in production but it has higher productivity. Yield is similar to the moderately productive wheat varieties (3 t/ha). The soft grains have lower crude protein content than the previously bred einkorn wheat varieties, so it is more in line with brewing industry preferences. The carotene-rich, yellow flour is suitable to make bakery products or pasta. Due to its high biological value, high content of bioactive components and fibres it can be used to produce functional foodstuffs.
|Typical values of quality parameters|
|Test weight||80,3 kg/100 l|
|Falling number||351 mp/second|
|Crude protein content (D.M.)||13,4-15,6 %|
|Wet gluten content||41,8 %|
|Wet gluten spread||12 mm/h|
|W value||47 x 10-4 J|
**The data were recorded in artificially inoculated experiments where the plots were inoculated with many times the quantity of pathogen occurring in nature. Similar levels of infection can only develop in wheat fields if there is no plant protection and the environmental conditions (weather, agronomic standard) are ideal for the spread of the pathogen.